Urinary markers were tested as predictors of macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Nested case-control of participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial.
87 cases of microalbuminuria were matched to 174 controls in a 1:2 ratio, while 4 cases were matched to 4 controls in a 1:1 ratio, resulting in 91 cases and 178 controls for microalbuminuria. 55 cases of macroalbuminuria were matched to 110 controls in a 1:2 ratio. Controls were free of micro-/macroalbuminuria when their matching case first developed micro-/macroalbuminuria.
Urinary N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), pentosidine, advanced glycation end product (AGE) fluorescence, and albumin excretion rate (AER). OUTCOMES: Incident microalbuminuria (2 consecutive annual AERs > 40 but 300 mg/d).
Stored urine samples from DCCT entry and 1-9 years later when macro- or microalbuminuria occurred were measured for the lysosomal enzyme NAG and the AGE pentosidine and AGE fluorescence. AER and adjustor variables were obtained from the DCCT.
Submicroalbuminuric AER levels at baseline independently predicted microalbuminuria (adjusted OR, 1.83; P < 0.001) and macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR, 1.82; P < 0.001). Baseline NAG excretion independently predicted macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR, 2.26; P < 0.001) and microalbuminuria (adjusted OR, 1.86; P < 0.001). Baseline pentosidine excretion predicted macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR, 6.89; P = 0.002). Baseline AGE fluorescence predicted microalbuminuria (adjusted OR, 1.68; P = 0.02). However, adjusted for NAG excretion, pentosidine excretion and AGE fluorescence lost the predictive association with macroalbuminuria and microalbuminuria, respectively.
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